Prefix Magazine Style Guide

    Prefix Magazine Local Style Guide

    Prefix Magazine Style Guide

    Version 1.4

    Last Revision: 02.01.09

    M. Brandon Wall

     

    Follow the AP Style Guide for style. Use Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, eleventh edition, for spelling; if a word isn’t listed there, check Webster’s Third New International Dictionary of English Language, unabridged. The OED is also good, particularly for historical sense. Words into Type is the source for grammar examples and guidelines, and the New York Times style guide fills some gaps left by these. For more general thoughts on grammar and copy-editing, check Bill Walsh’s two books, The Elephants of Style and Lapsing into a Comma.

     

    The tone of the magazine is friendly, informative, and decidedly not condescending. We are hosting an intelligent conversation among fellow music-lovers — those who know everything about music (or at least think they do) and those who hope to know everything about music (or at least hope to come off that way). We want to create a welcoming atmosphere. Our main goal is to contribute to the ongoing discourse about music and pop culture.

     

    General Style:

    ·       Put song titles in “quotes” and album titles in italics. Titles of television shows and movies are in italics. Follow standard title rules for capitalization: capitalize nouns, pronouns, verbs (including “is”), adjectives, adverbs, subordinating conjunctions (if, as), and the first and last words; lowercase articles, coordinating conjunctions (but, and), and prepositions of four characters or fewer.

    ·       One space after all punctuation, including periods. We never need two spaces.

    ·       In all instances, commas and periods go inside the quotation marks (Opener “Prelude,” nothing more than…). Colons and semicolons always go outside (For these reasons, the Beatles’ best song is “Cry Baby Cry”: The band…).

    ·       Unless it will result in confusion, do not capitalize the “t” in “the” before a band name.

    ·       Bands, duos, groups: Follow AP Style for group nouns. If referring to the entity itself, use the singular (“it”). If referring to the individuals in the entity, use the plural (“they”). Write around it if necessary (for example, “the members of…”). What’s important is that you’re consistent throughout the sentence — “a band is releasing their album” is a mixed mess.

    ·       On second reference, use the artist’s last name, unless you’re using the first name for effect. (Oh, Conor!)

    ·       Avoid stilted language, including “this reviewer” and, in most cases, the “one” construction (“one can see why this band…”). It puts an unwanted barrier between the writer and reader. Our tone is friendlier and more casual than that.

    ·       Try to avoid referring to bands by their initials, unless it’s cumbersome to continue spelling out the band’s name. We generally want to avoid hastening the language’s devolution into alphabet soup.

    ·       Eschew the serial comma (left, right and center) unless it’s unclear. In lists of band names, for example, it’s often better to separate each element in the list so the distinction between each is clear.

    ·       For tour dates, use this format: XX.XX City, State: Venue.

    §       So, 01.12 New York, NY: Knitting Factory

    §       If the band is playing with another band worth mentioning, use an asterisk after the venue, and define the asterisk (*) at the bottom of the list. If two bands need to be mentioned, use two asterisks (**). Other symbols are fine, but choose ones that aren’t confusing (don’t use an !, for example). 

    §       For states, use two-letter postal abbreviation: AL, NJ, NY, etc. This breaks from the running-text style of spelling out state names.

     

    The Watch List: words/phrases/ideas to use sparingly (if at all — they’ve been used enough)

    ·       Hipster, anthemic

    ·       any iteration of “the band is having fun”

    ·       any iteration of the music making you want to dance

    ·       “had me reaching for the fast-forward (or rewind) button”

    ·       lauding an album and then saying it’s “far from perfect” when introducing its flaws

    ·       the parts are better than the whole (or the whole is better than the sum of its parts)

    ·       clichés in all but rare circumstances (the language is vast — take advantage of it; when you have the opportunity to say anything you want and have hoards of people read your words, why use hackneyed phrases and words that aren’t your own?)

     

     

    Style, alphabetically

    KEY:

    (a): adjective

    (adv): adverb

    (n): noun

    (pa): predicate adjective

    (v): verb

     

    A

    aah, aahs (n) [sometimes accompanied by “ooh”]

     

    ABBREVIATIONS Generally, use periods with two-letter abbreviations that may be confusing or look odd without them (U.S., U.K., U.N., e.g., i.e., a.m., p.m.); omit periods if three letters or more (CBS, PGA, CEO, ZIP, VIP) and for two-letter abbreviations that look fine without them (VP, CD, EU, MC, DJ). No periods necessary for single-word capped abbreviations (TV), initialisms (CPU, ATM), acronyms (NASA), organizations (IBM), or universities (BU).

    ·       Academic degrees: use periods (Ph.D., M.D.)

    ·       Articles: If the full name is preceded by “the,” so is the abbreviation (the U.N.; the DMV). Abbreviations for universities (UNC) and companies (ABC) do not take articles.

    ·       Eras: A.D., B.C., B.C.E., C.E. (A.D. precedes year, the rest follow.)

    ·       Geographic names: Most geographic names should not be abbreviated in text, except for places beginning with “Saint” (St. Louis). When in a place name, spell out “Mount,” “Place,” “Fort,” “Point” and “Port.” Follow Webster’s Geographical Dictionary and the U.S. Postal Service. For names of people or bands, follow their preference (St. Vincent, Saint Etienne).

    ·       Hyphens: with compound adjectives including abbreviations, use a hyphen (U.S.-born musician); DO NOT use a hypen (-) in the place of an em-dash (–) or a colon (:).

    ·       Measurements: Don’t abbreviate “pounds,” “ounces,” “miles,” “feet,” “inches” or metric measurements such as “kilometer” and “millimeter.”

    ·       The abbreviations rpm and mph don’t need periods.

    ·       Names: For names beginning with two initials, use periods and don’t put a space between each initial (G.G. Allin).

    ·       No periods for a set of initials standing in for a full name (JFK, FDR, TR). No periods for band names referred to by initials, but avoid unless it’s absolutely cumbersome to continue spelling out band name.

    ·       The abbreviations Sr. and Jr. are not preceded by a comma.

    ·       Numerals: Follow AP. Always use them with abbreviations (80 mph) and percentages (45 percent). [See NUMBERS.]

    ·       Percentages: spell out “percent” and use numerals.

    ·       States: Spell out state names when they stand alone. After a city, use abbreviations listed in AP Style Guide: Ala., Ariz., Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Kan., Ky., La., Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mont., Neb., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.M., N.Y., N.C., N.D., Okla., Ore., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.D., Tenn., Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo. Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Maine, Ohio, Texas, and Utah do not have abbreviations. For TOUR DATES: use two-letter postal abbreviations. [See STATE NAMES.]

     

    Aborigines (n): for original Australians; BUT, Australian aborigines

     

    about: preferred over “approximately,” in the case they can be used synonymously

     

    a cappella

     

    accessible: hyphenate adjectival combos (wheelchair-accessible building); BUT, it is wheelchair accessible (pa)

     

    A.D.: precedes date (A.D. 44); when possible, follow secular convention: C.E. (common era); B.C.E. (before common era)

     

    adult video store [See list of acceptable OPEN COMPOUNDS.]

     

    aerobicize (v)(a)

     

    aesthetic (a): aesthetic merit

     

    Afrobeat

     

    after-party (n)

     

    -age: not –aged (toddler-age son); EXCEPT middle-aged; ALSO, “children ages five to twelve”

     

    age specific (pa): as in, What is age specific about hip-hop?

     

    AGREEMENT Follow these general rules:

    Collective nouns (“band,” “group”): Consider if you’re talking about the group or about the members of that group. “The last group hasn’t played yet,” BUT, “The group wore masks when they were performing.”

    Percentages: Consider if you’re talking about a collective group or about the members of that group. “About 10 percent of bands make it big,” BUT, “About 40 percent of the bands scheduled to play are going to.”

    Here’s a handy cheat sheet, care of Travel + Leisure:

    One out of five workers is…(subject is “one”)

    Less than one in five is… (less than one not countable)

    As many as one out of five is… (one is countable)

    All but one child was present… (singular verb when noun follows “one”)

    Of the thirty kids, all but one were present…; All but one of the kids were present (plural when verb follows “one” or preceding noun of prepositional phrase is plural)

    About 30 percent of the population is…(when noun after percent is singular)

    About 30 percent of the residents are…(Of the residents, 30 percent are)

    As many as 25 percent of us are…(when countable follows as, use many)

    As much as 30 percent of the population is…(when amount is object of preposition)

    Fewer than 30 percent of the residents are…(more precise than less than)

    Less than 30 percent of the population is…(object denotes amount)

     

    a.k.a.

     

    à la 

     

    ALBUM ABSTRACTS

    Essentially, we just want to summarize the album: what’s notable about it, what the band did differently, why we should care that the record is being released. It needn’t be long (a few sentences will work in many cases), but it should be entertaining and informative, and it should be timeless. Even though the record “will” be released at the time you write it, avoid the future tense. It won’t make any sense years from now. If at all possible, try to write it so that it will make as much sense now as it will in our archives well after the record has hit shelves.

     

    To upload:

                1. Click on “Write a Preview” to the corresponding album here: http://www.prefixmag.com/previews/

     

    2. Skip steps 1 and 2 on the page.

     

    3. Under “Preview Info,” change the status to “Published.”

     

    4. Fill in the preview and then hit submit.

     

    5. E-mail the copy to Dave and Brandon.

     

    Alexisonfire: even though the band prefers a lowercase a

     

    alibiing (v)

     

    all-American (n)(a)

     

    all-expense-paid (a): all-expense-paid trip

     

    Allied (a): Allied troop strength

     

    all-important (pa)

     

    all-too-rare (a)

     

    ALPHABETIZATION Letter by letter, not word by word

     

    alpha male (n), BUT (a) alpha-male, as in alpha-male display

     

    Alpine: when referring to the Alps in Europe; alpine for general use, meaning “of or relating to high mountains”

     

    alt-country, alt-metal, alt-rock, alt-weekly

     

    alternate/alternative: the former means “occurring in turn”; the latter means “another possibility”

     

    a.m.

     

    American Modern (n)(a)(pa)

     

    amid

     

    among

     

    analog

     

    anal-retentive (n)

     

    And You Will Know Us by the Trail of Dead; Trail of Dead: nix the ellipsis

     

    Anglophone (n)

     

    anthemic: be careful not to overuse

     

    Anti-Records, Anti-

     

    AMPERSAND Follow the band’s preference, using its logo as a guide.

     

    Apollo 12: numerals for all Apollo missions (11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17)

     

    après: hyphenate adjectival compounds (“après-concert coffee”)

     

    Argentine (a)

     

    argyle (a)

     

    Art Deco (n)(a)(pa)

     

    art-rock (n)(a)(pa)

     

    A-side, B-side

     

    at bats (n)

     

    atta boy

     

    Arulpragasam, Maya

     

    Auto-Tune

     

    ax (n): in all instances as a stand-in for “guitar”

     

     

    B

    B&B: okay on first reference for bed-and-breakfast

     

    back-test (n)(v)

     

    back-to-back (a): back-to-back concerts; BUT, back to back (pa): they played back to back

     

    backup (n): as in a singer and as in a logjam

     

    badass (n)(a)

     

    balls-out (a)(v)

     

    bandmates (n): following the form of workmates and playmates; ALSO, tourmates and labelmates.

     

    barbecue (n)(v)(a): eschew BBQ and barbeque unless it exists as part of a proper name

     

    barbed wire (n)(a): barbed wire fencing [See list of acceptable OPEN COMPOUNDS.]

     

    barnstomper (n)

     

    bar talk (n); BUT, maudlin bar-talk, to avoid a misreading

     

    bass line(s) (n)

     

    batshit (a)

     

    Bay Area (n)(a)

     

    bayside (a)

     

    b-boy, b-girl (n)

     

    B.C.: follows date (first century B.C.; 44 B.C.) when possible, follow secular convention: C.E. (common era); B.C.E. (before common era)

     

    -beat (n): five-beat

     

    beat-digger

     

    Beatles, the

     

    Beatles-esque

     

    beatless (a)

     

    beatmaker

     

    beatmaking

     

    because: no comma for an explanation (He must have gotten lost because he can’t read a map); comma for an elaboration (He must have gotten lost, because he can’t read a map).

     

    bed-and-breakfast (n)

     

    B-effort

     

    Belle and Sebastian (n)

     

    between/among: use “between” for physical relationships (between the club and the ball and the clubface) and for the idiom (let’s keep it between us)

     

    big-league (a)

     

    bird life (n)

     

    Bitter:Sweet: even though the Los Angeles-based guy/girl duo likes all lowercase

     

    black-and-white (a): black-and-white photos; BUT, black and white (pa): the photo was black and white

     

    blastbeat (n)

     

    blond (a)(n) in reference to male, but blonde (n) in reference to female [A blonde is a woman with blond hair; a blond is a male with blond hair; blond is an adjective for both.]

     

    B’more

     

    -bodied: hyphenate (a) compounds (fuller-bodied drink)

     

    bon mot, bons mots

     

    boozehound, boozehounds (n)

     

    Bose: trademark; Bose sound system

     

    bossa nova

     

    boxed set (n)

     

    bpm: follow NUMBER rules and use digits with abbreviations

     

    Brahman (n)(a): Brahman culture

     

    breakbeat (n)

     

    Britpop (n)

     

    Brit-rock (n)

     

    B-side, A-side (n)

     

    bucketloads (n)

     

    bull market (n); BUT bull-market (a): bull-market

     

    bum-rush (v)

     

    burned or burnt: author’s preference

     

    Bush, the (n): in Australia

     

    busk (v); busker(s) (n)

     

     

    C

    callus/callous: The first is a noun that refers to the hard areas on skin. The second is an adjective that means “made hard, hardened,” and it also often refers to attitudes (insensitive, indifferent, unsympathetic). 

     

    calypso

     

    campiness

     

    can’t-miss (a); can’t-miss (pa) [See also must-see.]

     

    CAPITALIZATION See individual words if not covered in guide. Words in Web11 listed as cap or usu cap are capped; those labeled often cap are lowercased. In general, normalize bands, companies, or products that employ an odd capping style (Macy’s, Adidas, K.D. Lang).

    ·       In HEADS AND DECKS: lowercase prepositions of four letters or fewer, articles (a, the), and coordinating conjunctions (for, and, not, but, or, yet). Uppercase verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, subordinating conjunctions (if, as), and the first and last words.

    ·       Magazine and newspaper names: Even if “the” is part of the name, lowercase it in running text (we read in the Atlantic Monthly); italicize city name with newspapers [New York Post]

    ·       Positions/Titles: Cap only if preceding the name (President Clinton, BUT the president of the United States is Clinton; Senior Marketing Chief Joe Blow, BUT Joe Blow, the senior marketing chief).

    ·       The: generally, lowercase the t in the in running text, BUT capitalize the T in some instances to avoid odd-looking constructions. Lowercase the T in “the” before band names (the Beatles), but uppercase if it follows an ampersand (Sharon Jones & The Dap Kings)

    ·       EXCEPTIONS: The Skeleton and the Kings of All Cities; The Good, The Bad & The Queen

     

    carjack (v) would carjack six vehicles

     

    cash flow (n); BUT, cash-flow problem (a)

     

    cash-only (a): cash-only deal; BUT, cash only (pa), bar is cash only

     

    catalog (n)(v)

     

    catch-and-release (n): everyone practices catch-and-release

     

    C-class (n): Mercedes C-class

     

    C cup (n): as in bra size

     

    CD

     

    CD rack (n)

     

    ceramicist (n)

     

    C-game (n): Also, A-game, B-game

     

    -challenged: space-challenged cargo area (a); treatment of the hearing-challenged (pa); no hyphen if modifying an adverb (mentally challenged)

     

    château(x) (n)

     

    check (a): a check pattern (NOT a checked pattern)

     

    chile, chiles (n)(a): for the pepper and the powder

     

    chili, chilies: for the dish; chili con carne

     

    chock-a-block (a)

     

    choke hold (n)

     

    Christ’s sake

     

    civil rights (a): civil rights pioneers; civil rights era

     

    -class: hyphenate combos (world-class)

     

    cliché (n); BUT, clichéd (a)

     

    clifftop (n)(a)

     

    climate control (n); BUT, climate-control system (a)

     

    Clouddead: Anticon collective. This is the K.D. Lang rule; no matter how much she screams about it, we’ll follow conventional rules of American English and capitalize the first letters of first and last names and initials. Plus, maintaining our own style standards in these cases keeps us from looking like a PR firm.

    ·       Exception: Some companies put the second letter of their monikers in uppercase, i.e. eBay, iPod. If those names start a sentence, standard rules (uppercase the first letter) apply.

     

    c’mon

     

    co- (prefix): close up when possible (costar, codesigner, codeveloper); BUT, co-worker, co-opt

     

    cold war (n)(a)

     

    COLONS If material after the colon is a fragment, lowercase the first letter. (Then I realized what it was: a BDP song.) If material following colon is a sentence, capitalize the first letter. (Then I knew: He’d left us.) Like the semicolon, the colon goes on the outside of quotes (told me the “meaning of life”: Listen to hip-hop).

     

    COMMAS

    ·       No serial comma unless it’s confusing (as is the case in lists of bands).

    ·       Use a comma to separate independent clauses joined by a conjunction (“I wanted to go see Daniel Johnston, but you wanted to see Mission of Burma.”), UNLESS they are very short (four words each) and are joined with “and.” (“I rode my bike and you walked.”)

    ·       Do not separate compound predicates with commas: “Band of Horses came on early and played late.”

    ·       Follow restrictive/nonrestrictive rules. A restrictive clause limits meaning (“The band that went on first was the best”). A nonrestrictive clause adds to the subject but does not necessarily restrict it (“The band, which has five members, has to take two buses.”)

    ·       Nonrestrictive clauses can be removed from the sentence and it would still make sense. (“The band, which formed in April, went on tour in May.” “The band went on tour in May.”) These clauses must be wrapped in punctuation — often a comma on either side.

    ·       That introduces restrictive clauses (and, thus, isn’t separated out by punctuation); which introduces nonrestrictive clauses (and is separated out by punctuation). That and which are not interchangeable.

    ·       In series with semicolons: semicolons between all elements of list (x; y; and z)

    ·       -ly adverbs: When they start a sentence, usually no comma after, unless confusion results. (Ordinarily I would have said no.)

    ·       Jr./Sr.: no commas around either (Martin Luther King Jr.)

    ·       State names: in text after city, use commas before and after (“The bar in Austin, Texas, is always fun”). Same with countries (“We went to Paris, France, before going to Spain.”)

    ·       Introductory clause: Generally don’t need comma after a short one (three words) at the beginning of the sentence. Use after “Meanwhile” and between proper nouns.

     

    company: spell out in the colloquial “and company” construction (A.C. Newman and company). If it’s a company name, use Co.

     

    -compatible (pa): hyphenate combos (nightclub-compatible)

     

    corpse paint

     

    -count (n): hyphenate combos (five-count)

     

    coup de grace (n)

     

    co-worker

     

    crafts work (n)

     

    crap-outs (n)

     

    crate digger

     

    cross-country (n)(a): in cross-country [track]

     

    cross-generational (a): cross-generational symbol

     

    crowd-surf, crowd-surfing

     

    crown jewel (n)(a): the crown jewel; crown jewel event

     

    cuff links (n)

     

    cup holder (n): BUT, cup-holder (a): cup-holder placement

     

    curbside (a)

     

    currency: Colloquially, spell out (“They spent a million dollars on this”), but use the symbol and number otherwise.

     

    custom made (pa): were custom made; BUT, custom-made (a)(v)

     

    cut-and-dried (n)

     

    cutting-edge (n)(a)(pa)

     

    cyber paradise

     

    cyberspace (n)

     

    cyber spree (n)

     

    -cylinder (n): hyphenate combos (a four-cylinder)

     

     

    D

    Dada, Dadaist

     

    Dälek: hip-hop group from Newark, New Jersey; also the name of its MC (pronounced “dialect”)

     

    Dali, Salvador

     

    damn (a): but can be damn or damned, per author

     

    damnedest

     

    damn it

     

    Dave 1: half of Montreal’s Chromeo, with Pee Thug

     

    Day-Glo

     

    dead center (pa): hit it dead center

     

    dead certain (pa): was dead certain

     

    dead flat (pa): bass line is dead flat

     

    death metal (n); death-metal (a)

     

    DJ: DJ’ing, DJ’d, DJs

     

    desperados (n)

    dialogue (n)

     

    dickhead (n)

     

    dickweed (n)

     

    different from vs. different than: for direct comparisons (“different” and then a noun), “different” is followed by “from.” (“Magazines are different from newspapers.”) “Different than” is used when the object is a clause or when it is an indirect comparison (“Smith is a different man than [he was] during his tenure.” Note: if you wanted to use “from,” it would have to be rewritten as “Smith is a different man from the one he was during his tenure”).

     

    dirt cheap (pa); BUT, dirt-cheap (a)

     

    diss, disses (n)(v)(a)

     

    district: generally lowercase in place names (Warehouse district in Austin, Texas)

     

    Disturbing tha Peace

     

    doom metal (n); doom-metal (a)

     

    do-it-yourself (a): DIY acceptable on first reference

     

    dot-com (n)(a)

     

    dot-comophobic (a)

     

    dot-bomb (n)(a)

     

    down-tempo, up-tempo (a)

     

    down-tuned (a)

     

    double-click (v)

     

    double-duty (n): doing double-duty

     

    double knits (n): flared double knits

     

    down-market (adv): rush down-market

     

    down-the-stretch (pa)

     

    Down Under (n): as stand-in for Australia

     

    Dr.: preferred on first reference as an honorific (not Name, M.D.)

     

    drop-away (n)

     

    drop box (n)

     

    -dropping: hyphenate combos (name-dropping)

     

    drum ’n’ bass [See also rock ’n’ roll.]

     

    dubplate(s)

     

    dubstep

     

    DVD

     

     

    E

    earbud(s)

     

    early- (a): early-morning event

     

    Early American (a)(pa)

     

    earth-and-soil (a)

     

    eBay

     

    e-book

     

    econobox (n)

     

    eff (v): go eff yourself

     

    eight-bit (a) [See also, four-bit.]

     

    electroclash

     

    electropop

     

    ELLIPSES

    ·       Three-dot ellipsis: No space between each dot, because we don’t want the computer to split them for us, but a space on either side. (Oh…that’s odd.)

    ·        Four-dot ellipsis: Use if following a complete sentence. Close up the first period, ellipsis, then space. (A quote from an article goes here and then we cut part…. And then we picked it back up again.)

     

    e-mail (n)(v)

     

    MC, MC’ing, MC’d, MCs

     

    emerging markets (n); BUT, emerging-market (a): emerging-market investing

     

    end-all (n)

     

    entrée

     

    eons

     

    EP(s)

     

    et al.

     

    etc.: use sparingly  

     

    ever-: hyphenate adjectival combos (ever-threatening tides)

     

    executive producer (n)(a)

     

    eye opening (pa): is eye opening, BUT, eye-opening (a) 

     

    eye-worn (pa): feel eye-worn

     

     

    F

    facade

     

    -faced: hyphenate combos (a) or (pa)

     

    facelift (n)

     

    factory-filled (v): factory-filled with bubblegum

     

    FALSE RANGES In the “from X to Y” construction, try to make sure that X and Y are on either side of a spectrum (from hot dogs to filet mignon). This is generally a clichéd technique to d

     

    Far East (n)

     

    far-fetched (pa): it isn’t far-fetched

     

    farther/further: use “farther” if referring to physical distance

     

    fast-food (a): fast-food brands

     

    FatCat Records

     

    Feds, the (n)

     

    feet (measurements): it is ten feet long; BUT, a ten-foot-long strip

     

    fiancé (man); fiancée (woman)

     

    first-come, first-served (a): a first-come, first-served operation; first come, first served (n)

     

    first rate (pa): is first rate; BUT, first-rate (a)

     

    first-timers (n)

     

    fists first (pa)

     

    fist pump (n); fist-pump (a)

     

    flat-screen (a)(n)

     

    flier (n) for “a circular.” Flyer normally reserved for some trains and buses.

     

    flugelhorn

     

    fly-fishing (n)(a)

     

    FM stations

     

    follow-through (n)

     

    follow-up (n)(a)

     

    -foot-long (a): a ten-foot-long area; BUT, (pa) feet long: it is ten feet long

     

    former: in long adjective phrases (former producer turned MC)

     

    Formula 1

     

    four-bit (a) [See also, eight-bit.]

     

    4Hero

     

    four-on-the-floor (a)

     

    frat house (n); frat-house (a)

     

    freak-out(s) (n)(v)

     

    -free (a)(pa): not be personality-free, pain-free

     

    freebies (n)

     

    free-for-all (n)

     

    free-jazz (a)

     

    French fries

     

    -friendly (a)(pa): computer-friendly co-worker

     

    frontman; frontwoman

     

    frost heave (n)

     

    fuel gauge (n); BUT, fuel-gauge (a)

     

    full-blown (pa): sprang full-blown

     

    full-length(s) (n)

     

    fund-raising, fund-raiser

     

     

    G

    gangbanger

     

    gay-bashing (v)

     

    gearhead (n)

     

    general admission (n)(a): general admission ticket [See list of acceptable OPEN COMPOUNDS.]

     

    get-go (n): from the get-go

     

    g-force (n)

     

    gimme(s) (n)

     

    glitter ball (n); BUT, glitter-ball (a)

     

    goateed (a)(pa)

     

    god-awful (a)

     

    goddamn (a)

     

    God-fearing (pa): all things God-fearing

     

    gold-leafed (v)

     

    The Good, the Bad & the Queen: note capital T in first “the”

     

    goodbye

     

    good old (a): good old KRS-One

     

    gosh-darn (a)

     

    goth: the style

     

    gotten (v)

     

    Grade A (a)

     

    grand slam

     

    gray (a)(pa)

     

    grille, grilles: jewelry for your teeth

     

    grilled cheese sandwich [See list of acceptable OPEN COMPOUNDS.]

     

    grime, grimy

     

    grrrl rock (n); grrrl-rock (a)

     

    G-spot (n)

     

    guesthouse (n)

     

    guest room (n)

     

    Guided by Voices

     

    G-Unit

     

    Gypsies (n)(a); BUT, gypsy if not referring to the ethnic group

     

    GZA

     

     

    H

    half: don’t hyphenate verbs (half crying); hyphenate adjectives (half-cocked attitude); don’t hyphenate predicate adjectives (he went off half cocked)

     

    half-dozen

     

    half-hour  

     

    hand-eye (a): hand-eye coordination

     

    hands down (pa): won hands down; BUT, hands-down (a)

     

    hands-on (a): hands-on instruction; AND, (pa): teaches hands-on

     

    hang-ten (v)

     

    hardcore (n)(a)

     

    harkens (v)

     

    HEADLINES

    ·       Capitalize first and last words, nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverbs and subordinating conjunctions (as, if).

    ·       Lowercase articles, prepositions of four letters or fewer, and coordinating conjunctions (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so).

    ·       Cap both first letters of temporary compounds (Seventy-Fifth), but only the first letter of permanent compounds (Tune-up).

    ·       Minimize punctuation

     

    headbang (v); headbanger (n)

     

    heavy metal (n); heavy-metal (a)

     

    heshers

     

    hi-fi (a) [See also lo-fi.]

     

    high-hat

     

    high-tech (a): high-tech sampler

     

    hip-hop

     

    hitmaker

     

    a historic: not an historic [Note: not synonymous with historical. The former means “important in history”; the latter means “of or concerning history.”]

     

    hmm

     

    homage: pronounced with a silent h, like “honor.” So, “an homage.”

     

    homepage (n)

     

    home run (n)(a): a home run guy [See list of acceptable OPEN COMPOUNDS.]

     

    honest-to-God (a): honest-to-God glove box

     

    honor society (n)(a): honor society key [See list of acceptable OPEN COMPOUNDS.]

     

    hoofbeats

     

    horror-core

     

    hot rod (n)(a): hot rod Mercedes; BUT, hot-rod (v)

     

    hot tub (n); BUT, hot-tub (a): hot-tub party

     

    house (n): the type of music

     

    hyperspeed

     

     

    I

    ice cold (pa)

     

    I’da: as a stand-in for “I’d have” [use sparingly and only for effect]

     

    if/whether: use “if” to introduce a condition. (We’ll play if it doesn’t rain.) Use “whether” to introduce a different possibility. (You didn’t say whether I should play guitar or drums.)

     

    Imax: trademark

     

    import/export (a)

     

    -inch (n)(a): 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch

     

    indie rock (n); indie-rock (a); AND indie-rockers (n)

     

    Industrial Revolution (the); BUT, the country’s industrial revolution

     

    industrial-waste (a): industrial-waste dump

     

    industry mates (n)

     

    INITIALS IN NAMES No space between the initials (G.G. Allin) [See also ABBREVIATIONS.]

     

    in season (pa); BUT in-season (a)

     

    inside out (pa): it was inside out; from the inside out; BUT, inside-out (a): inside-out song

     

    in-studio (pa): is in-studio every day

     

    interactive media (n)(a): interactive media department [See list of acceptable OPEN COMPOUNDS.]

     

    Internet (n)

     

    iPod, BUT, uppercase the “I” if the word starts a sentence; try to write around

     

    IQ

     

    it’s/its: the former means “it is”; the latter is the pronoun

     

    ITALICS

    ·       Use for titles of plays, movies, TV shows, album titles (put song titles in quotes) and books.

    ·       Use for foreign words not in Web11. Foreign proper words are in roman.

    ·       Television shows: Italicize continued series (so Sesame Street, Hill Street Blues and Survivor) and put quotes around the specific title of the program (Friends, “The One Where They Live Lavishly”).

    ·       With onomatopoeic sounds: The fish went blip in the water.

    ·       Punctuation of: Italicize all internal punctuation in an italicized phrase (Hip-Hop and Philosophy: Rhyme 2 Reason, by Derrick Darby and Tommie Shelby)

    ·       Don’t italicize the names of other publications: Rolling Stone magazine (New York Times style)

     

    -ization (n): hyphenate if not in dictionary otherwise

     

     

    J

    Jack & Coke(s)

     

    J Dilla or Jay Dee

     

    Jet Ski (trademark)

     

    Johnny-come-lately(s)

     

    Jr.: no commas around Jr. or Sr.

     

    JR Writer: no periods

     

    jury-rigged: this is the more literate form of “jerry-rigged,” which is a perversion of “jury-rigged” and “jerry-built” (a word that implies something of more permanence). Use “jury-rigged,” not “jerry-rigged.”

     

    just: hyphenate adjectival combos (a just-discontinued Toyota); open predicate adjective combos (she is just awake)

     

     

    K

    kazillion (n)

     

    K.D. Lang: Generally, follow conventional rules of American English and capitalize the first letters of first and last names and initials. Maintaining our own style standards in these cases keeps us from looking like a PR firm.

    ·       Exception: Some companies put the second letter of their monikers in uppercase, i.e. eBay, iPod. If those names start a sentence, standard rules (uppercase the first letter) apply.

     

    -keeping: close combos (scorekeeping)

     

    Kiwi-pop

     

    knee socks (n)

     

    knowledgeable

     

    Kool G Rap

     

    Krautrock

     

     

    L

    L.A.: use periods to distinguish from Louisiana postal abbreviation; in most cases, use Los Angeles on first reference

     

    labelmates [See also bandmates, tourmates.]

     

    lakefront (n)(a)

     

    lap steel: no hyphen, unless it’s an adjective [See also pedal steel.]

     

    last album: to be used only if it was, in fact, the band’s last (as in final) album. If not, go with “previous” or “most recent,” or better yet, tell us the number (debut, sophomore).

     

    Las Vegas Strip (n)

     

    late great (a): late great guitar player; avoid overuse

     

    late twentieth century (n); BUT, late-twentieth-century (a)

     

    lawn chair (n)

     

    lent/loaned: Generally, lend is a verb, loan is a noun.

     

    liberal arts (n)(a)

     

    lightning-shifts (v)

     

    -like: for compounds, generally closed except for words ending in l or ll (wall-like), words of three or more syllables (guitarlike, but formula-like), hyphenated and open compound words (tree-lined-like), proper nouns (Hendrix-like), or other forms difficult to read.

     

    Lil Wayne: no apostrophe

     

    limp dick (n); limp-dick (a)

     

    -lined: hyphenate combos (tree-lined)

     

    lineup (n): a band’s lineup; line up (v): line up over there

     

    lip-synching (v)

     

    living room (n)(a) [See list of acceptable OPEN COMPOUNDS.]

     

    lo-fi: BUT, low fidelity and high fidelity [See also hi-fi.]

     

    logoed (a): logoed amps

     

    -long: hyphenate combos not in dictionary (decades-long)

     

    -looking: hyphenate combos (a)(pa) (good-looking)

     

    lover (n): jazz lover

     

    lover boy (n), lover-boy (a)

     

    low-: hyphenate if not in dictionary in any position (low-slung, low-roller, low-riding)

     

    lunkhead

     

    lust: hyphenate adjectival combos (guitar-lust problem, BUT piano lust)

     

     

    M

    Magnolia Electric Co.

     

    mah-jongg; BUT, the band is Mahjongg

     

    mail-order (a): mail-order business

     

    major league (n): in the major leagues; BUT, major-league (a), major-league baseball

     

    -maker: generally, no hyphen in compound if noun (he’s a music maker); hyphenate adjectives. [See also –making.] Note: beatmaker and beatmaking don’t take hyphen. 

     

    -making: usually no hyphen in compound if noun (music making) unless misreading results; hyphenate in adjective form (a music-making procedure).

     

    mango(es) (n)

     

    mano a mano (adv)

     

    many hued (pa): is many hued; BUT, many-hued (a): a many-hued green

     

    market share (n)

     

    Marrakech

     

    Marxist (a)

     

    J. Mascis

     

    mass transit (n); BUT, mass-transit (a): mass-transit system

     

    MAXIMS, PROVERBS and FAMILIAR SAYINGS If full sentence, capitalize first letter and wrap in quotes (When they say “Music is life,” this is what they mean.) [See list of COMMON PHRASES.]

     

    MEASUREMENTS

    ·       Hyphenate adjectival forms and spell out unit (-liter, -millimeter) in running text.

     

    Me Decade (n)(a)

     

    MEDIA POSTS

                Artist: “Song Title” (Type)

     

    megacity

     

    Mellotron

     

    me-me-me (a): me-me-me conversation

     

    metalcore

     

    metalhead

     

    Miami bass

     

    Michigan peninsula; BUT, Upper Peninsula/Lower Peninsula (when it’s obvious you’re speaking of Michigan)

     

    microcable: no hyphen necessary

     

    microenvironments

     

    microfibers: no hyphen necessary

     

    microhouse

     

    mid + decade or century or month: in our mid-40s, in the mid-’60s, mid-September

     

    mid-length

     

    mic or microphone, BUT miked up (v)

     

    mild mannered (pa): he was mild mannered; BUT, mild-mannered (a): mild-mannered man

     

    milk shake

     

    minded: open combos (history minded, outdoors minded)

     

    mindfuck (n)(a)(v)

     

    mind over matter (n); BUT, (a) mind-over-matter (mind-over-matter gang)

     

    Minimoog

     

    minor league (n): in the minor leagues; BUT, minor-league (a), minor-league hockey [Web11]

     

    mixtape (n)

     

    M.O.

     

    modern art (n); BUT, modern-art (a)

     

    money chase (n)

     

    Monterey Peninsula (n)

     

    MOR: middle of the road, taken from the radio format

     

    motor scooter (n)

     

    mouth filling (pa)

     

    movie star (n); BUT, movie-star (a): movie-star looks

     

    mowed or mown (v)

     

    Mowhawk: Native American tribe and hair style

     

    mph

     

    much-needed (a): hyphenate if misread may occur without.

     

    multiday

     

    multilayered

     

    multi-instrumentalist

     

    multiseason

     

    multitiered

     

    multitracked

     

    Murder Inc.; BUT, Murder, Inc. if referring to the crime syndicate from the 1930s

     

    muscle memory (n): proper muscle memory

     

    must-play (n): a must-play; BUT, (a) must-play

     

    must-see (n); BUT, (a) must-see

     

    mutual fund (n)(a): the mutual fund king [See list of acceptable OPEN COMPOUNDS.]

     

    M. Ward

     

    MySpace: followed by “page” if referring to the site (“the artist’s MySpace page.”)

     

     

    N

    Naugahyde: trademark; artificial material made to look like leather

     

    near-monotone (a): near-monotone passage

     

    near-moonshine (n)

     

    Net, the: short for the Internet

     

    Netheads (n)

     

    new: we don’t do “new” when describing the record (or song or video, etc.) we’re writing about, because ideally people use our archives, and if we started saying “new,” all the reviews would say that. Give us better information: debut, sophomore, first for Label X, so forth.

     

    new age (pa)(n); BUT, new-age (a)

     

    New American cuisine: capitalize if referring to the type of cuisine that developed in the 1980s in California.

     

    new jack swing: sometimes called “swing beat”; Teddy Riley (member of Guy, Blackstreet) is regarded as the king of new jack swing; mid-1980s and ’90s genre that blended old-school hip-hop with commercial R&B

     

    New Urbanism: uppercase if referring to the movement

     

    new wave (pa)(n); BUT, new-wave (a), BUT, French New Wave

     

    New York City: spell out unless you mean for the reader to say the actual letters

     

    NICKNAMES Put in quotes if in the middle of full, proper name

     

    Nike: trademark, but don’t use all caps even though the company usually does

     

    nine-to-five job

     

    nirvana (n); BUT, Nirvana if referring to the band

     

    Nobel Prize

     

    no-no (n)

     

    nonmembers (n)

     

    nor’easter

     

    Northern Soul: heavy-beat soul music, African in descent, popularized in northern England; title of the Verve’s second album

     

    now-classic (a): now-classic record

     

    now then[,]

     

    ’N Sync, ’N Sync-er: former ’N Sync-er

     

    NUMBERS In general, follow AP Style Guide.

    ·       Spell out whole numbers below 10, use figures for 10 and above.

    ·       Use numerals for adjective combos with currency ($50,000 project)

    ·       Figures greater than 999 use commas (71,000)

    ·       Ages always take numerals.

    ·       Beats: 4/4, etc.

    ·       Centuries: follow general rule (fourth century, 17th-century layout). Also, from the 1900s (no apostrophe).

    ·       Decades: the ’50s, mid-’50s, the 1980s (watch direction of apostrophe; no apostrophe before s)

    ·       Temperature: 23 degrees Fahrenheit (favor Fahrenheit, if possible)

    ·       Years: use numerals (’71, 1981)

    ·       Other examples:

    7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch

    Mach 2

    80-proof (a)(pa)

    Terminal One, Gate B7

    5-series (car)

    310 horsepower; BUT, the power of three hundred horses

    180 IQ

    size 6 to 16

    widths A to 4E

    September 6–20

    40 mph (numerals before all abbreviations)

    50 percent (numerals for all percentages)

    Top 10 (if referring to a specific list; otherwise, top ten)

     

    n-word (n)(a)

     

     

    O

    Oakland A’s

     

    oak, oaks: preferred plural form

     

    oceanside: close up per oceanfront, cliffside, bayside, curbside

     

    off-island (a)(pa): off-island excursion; can be found off-island

     

    off-season (n)(a): the off-season

     

    -offs: hyphenate combos (drum-offs)

     

    oh, yeah

     

    OK, OK’d, OK’ing, OKs

     

    old money (n); BUT, old-money (a)

     

    old school (pa): he’s old school; BUT, old-school (a) [follow for new school]

     

    old world (n); BUT, old-world (a)

     

    on board (pa)

     

    once-: hyphenate (a) combos (once-great)

     

    one-eyed (pa)(a): you’d be one-eyed

     

    online (a)(pa)(adv): for Web references

     

    online dating service (n) [See list of acceptable OPEN COMPOUNDS.]

     

    -only: hyphenate combos (invitation-only)

     

    OPEN COMPOUNDS These adjectives that don’t need a hyphen. Rule of thumb: Use a hyphen if it could be misread without one.

    ·       adult video: adult video store

    ·       air traffic: air traffic controllers

    ·       crown jewel: the crown jewel event

    ·       classical music: classical music festivals

    ·       commercial airline: commercial airline pilot

    ·       customer assistance: customer assistance center

    ·       general admission: general admission ticket

    ·       high school: high school student

    ·       honor society: honor society key

    ·       interactive media: interactive media department

    ·       living room, family room: living room floor

    ·       mutual fund: the mutual fund king

    ·       online dating: online dating service

    ·       pension fund: pension fund managers

    ·       political correctness: political correctness mumbo-jumbo

    ·       property tax: property tax revenue

    ·       real estate: real estate courses, real estate programs

    ·       saddle shoe: saddle shoe look

    ·       sports medicine: sports medicine facility

    ·       stainless steel: stainless steel body

     

    -oriented: hyphenate combos (the service-oriented resort)

     

    ounces: spell out [See also ABBREVIATIONS.]

     

    out-: hyphenate combos (v): out-player

     

    outback: for the outback of Australia

     

    overhyped

     

    oversize

     

    own sweet pace

     

    oxfords (n)

     

     

    P

    -packs (n): hyphenate combos (fifteen-packs)

     

    pant leg (n)

     

    paradisiacal (a)  

     

    peanut butter (n)

     

    pedal steel: no hyphen, unless it’s an adjective [See also lap steel.]

     

    Peek-A-Boo Records

     

    Pee Thug: half of Montreal’s Chromeo, with Dave 1

     

    pension fund (n)(a): pension fund managers [See list of OPEN COMPOUNDS.]

     

    percent: use numbers and spell out “percent” in all instances, and don’t use the symbol (%)

     

    Peter, Bjorn and John

     

    phenomenality

     

    Ph.D. (n)

     

    physical fitness (n); BUT, physical-fitness (a): physical-fitness industry

     

    picker-upper (n)

     

    pie chart (n); BUT, pie-chart (v)

     

    pinkie (n): for the finger

     

    piston-pump (n) [Sullivan, S/O98]

     

    plain-Jane (a)(pa): plain-Jane woman; seems plain-Jane

     

    plain old: plain old good luck

     

    playlist (n); BUT, track list, set list

     

    -plus: hyphenate combos (fifty-plus)

     

    p.m.

     

    polyrhythm

     

    Portugal. The Man

     

    POSSESSIVES For plurals and proper nouns ending in s, add only the apostrophe (the guitars’ fret boards; Malkmus’ ideas)

    ·       If joint ownership, latter name takes ’s (John and Yoko’s couch, because they own it together); if not, both names get ’s (John’s and Yoko’s fans) 

     

    postmodern

     

    -pounder: hyphenate noun combos (hundred-pounders)

     

    powers that be (n)

     

    power-walk (v)

     

    PR (a)(n)

     

    prebooked

     

    pre-hippies

     

    premed (n)(a): degrees in premed; premed degree

     

    preventive: NOT preventative

     

    pre-war (a)

     

    prog rock (n), BUT, prog-rock (a)

     

    -prone: hyphenate (n) combos (the accident-prone)

     

    -proofed: hyphenate combos (was Slash–proofed)

     

    protégé (n)

     

    Pro Tools

     

    pruney (a)

     

    public access (n); BUT, public-access (a)

     

    purée (n)

     

     

    Q

    Qigong

     

    quasi-: always hyphenate (a) compounds (quasi-military state)

     

    -quick: hyphenate (a)(pa) combos (lightning-quick speed)

     

    ?uestlove: drummer for the Philadelphia-based Roots (New York Times style)

     

    QUOTATION MARKS

    ·       Use with words as words (the term “guitar hero,” the word “slump”)

    ·       Use with syllable as syllable (the word “Geronimo,” coming down on the “ron”

    ·       Use with definitions (meaning “small and compact”)

    ·       Use with nicknames if full name is mentioned (George Herman “Babe” Ruth)

    ·       Use with pronunciation guides (Read Yellow, pronounced “red yellow”)

    ·       Translations: to the sociedad, or “club.”

     

     

    R

    R&B (n)(a): okay on first reference; OR, rhythm ’n’ blues

     

    R&D (n)(a): for research and development; okay on first reference

     

    racecar driver (n)

     

    -racking: hyphenate combos (nerve-racking, constitution-racking); racked (he was racked with guilt)

     

    radial tire (n)(a): radial tire era [See list of acceptable OPEN COMPOUNDS.]

     

    raingear (n)

     

    rain suit (n)

     

    raison d’etre (n)

     

    rant-alongs (n)

     

    rave-up (n): a stomping punk rave-up

     

    -ready: hyphenate combos (fairway-ready, competition-ready)

     

    real estate (n)(a) [See list of acceptable OPEN COMPOUNDS.]

     

    re-creation: the creation of something again; recreation: done for enjoyment

     

    redline (n)

     

    -related: hyphenate (a) compounds (gang-related violence); BUT, related (pa): is gang related

     

    -resistant: hyphenate (a)(pa) combos (water-resistant clothing; they’re water- and sweat-resistant)

     

    re-releasing

     

    résumé (n)

     

    retro-: hyphenate combos

     

    Revolution/revolution: the Cuban Revolution; there was a revolution in styles

     

    rhythm ’n’ blues

     

    rib eye (n); rib-eye (a)

     

    riddim

     

    rimshots (n)

     

    riot grrrl

     

    risk-reward (a)

     

    Roc-A-Fella Records

     

    rockabilly (n)

     

    rock ’n’ roll (n); rock ’n’ roller (n)(a)

     

    rock star(s)

     

    round trip (n); BUT, round-trip (a)

     

    rpm  

     

    runtime

     

    RZA

     

     

    S

    saddle shoe (n)(a): saddle shoe look [See list of OPEN COMPOUNDS.]

     

    scenesters

     

    schlep

     

    scotch, scotch whisky [whisky from Scotland and Canada has no “e”; the rest does]

     

    ’scuse (v)

     

    second-guessing (n)

     

    Second World War; World War II: author’s choice

     

    self-: hyphenate combos (self-adjusts)

     

    Sept. 11, pre-Sept. 11, OR, 9/11

     

    7-inch (n)(a): 10-inch, 12-inch

     

    -shaped: amoeba-shaped guitar

     

    shop fronts (n)

     

    shoreside (n)(a) [See also –side.]

     

    short sleeves (n); BUT, short-sleeve (a)

     

    shout-out (n)

     

    showtime (n)

     

    sick leave (n): on sick leave

     

    side: geographic; rules apply to well-known designations only (Chicago’s south side, but the South Side; New York City’s east side, but the Lower East Side)

     

    -side: close combos (stageside, cliffside, treeside, courseside, curbside, oceanside)

     

    Silicon Valley

     

    sing-along(s)

     

    singer/songwriter

     

    single malts (n); BUT, single-malt (a): single-malt scotch

     

    single spaced (pa): I received letters, single spaced

     

    Sisyphean (a)

     

    -size: banquet-size room

     

    ska

     

    ski resort (n); BUT, ski-resort (a)

     

    Slanted and Enchanted: per the cover of Pavement’s classic

     

    slo-mo (a)

     

    smart-ass (n)

     

    smart money (n); BUT, smart-money (a)

     

    snottiness

     

    snow-capped (a); BUT, snowcap (n)

     

    -sober: hyphenate combos (judge-sober, lawyer-sober)

     

    s.o.b.

     

    -something: close combos (twentysomething, thirtysomething)

     

    song maker(s)

     

    sonofabitch

     

    so then[,]

     

    sound bite (n)

     

    sound clips

     

    soundscape

     

    SOURCING ARTICLES In blog posts based on another publication’s work, you must source that publication and link directly to the post. Mention the publication in your post (“In an article in the XYZ Times,…” and the author’s name if prominent enough), and at the end of the post, put the publication name in brackets and hyperlink directly to the sourced article: [XYZ Times].

     

    Southern California (n)

     

    space-age (a)(pa): be space-age

     

    space expansion (n)

     

    spartan (a)

     

    -speak: hyphenate combos (techno-speak, retiree-speak)

     

    special-ordered (v)

     

    SpinArt Records

     

    spokesmodels (n)

     

    sporting goods (n)(a)

     

    SportsCenter (n)

     

    sport-specific (a)

     

    spring break (n); BUT, spring-break (a)

     

    spring training (n); BUT, spring-training (a)

     

    squirrelly (a)

     

    St.: abbreviate in city names; for band names, follow their preference

     

    standard-issue (a)

     

    stan(s)

     

    starry-eyed (a)(pa): starry-eyed girl; is starry-eyed

     

    STATE NAMES Spell out state names when they stand alone. After a city, use abbreviations listed in AP Style Guide: Ala., Ariz., Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Kan., Ky., La., Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mont., Neb., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.M., N.Y., N.C., N.D., Okla., Ore., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.D., Tenn., Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo. Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Maine, Ohio, Texas, and Utah do not have abbreviations.

    EXCEPTION: For TOUR DATES, use two-letter postal abbreviations. [See also ABBREVIATIONS.]

     

    STATES WITH CITIES Use (most of) the AP list of cities that don’t need states on first reference [see below]. Otherwise spell out state on first reference and put comma on either side (Brooklyn, New York, is a seedbed for bands)

    ·       The following cities do not need to be modified by a state on first reference: Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Honolulu, Houston, Indianapolis, Las Vegas, Long Island, Los Angeles, Louisville (in whiskey column only), Milwaukee, Minneapolis, New Orleans, New York, Oklahoma City, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Palm Springs, Pittsburgh, St. Louis, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, Santa Barbara, Palm Springs, Seattle, Scottsdale.

     

    States, the: as in, released in the States.

     

    stateside: note lowercase s

     

    StereoGum

     

    still-: hyphenate (a) combos

     

    still life(s) (n); BUT, still-life (a): still-life photography

     

    stock market (n)(a): the stock market crash [See list of OPEN COMPOUNDS.]

     

    St. Patrick’s Day

     

    string pulling (n)

     

    strong-arm (a): strong-arm type

     

    -style: hyphenate combos (marquee-style)

     

    Sugar & Gold: San Francisco-based electro-soul band

     

    supergroup: do NOT overuse; it is often an empty descriptor and can usually be omitted without any loss

     

    supermodel (n)

     

    superproducer: try to avoid

     

    super-ripe (a)

     

    swear-bys (n)

     

    swing beat: more often referred to as new jack swing [See new jack swing.]

     

    swing time (n); swing-time (a)

     

     

    T

    take-away (n)

     

    Tantric (a): a Tantric tango

     

    tape cassette player (n) [See list of OPEN COMPOUNDS.]

     

    T-bone steak (n)

     

    tear-ass (v)

     

    techie

     

    techno

     

    teepee (n)

     

    teenager

     

    television or TV

     

    TELEVISION PROGRAMS If a continuing series, italicize (PBS’s Sesame Street); if not, or if title of an episode, set in roman and quotes (the following episode of Hill Street Blues, “Death on the Hill.”)

     

    Temporary Residence Ltd.    

     

    Tex-Mex (n)(a)

     

    thank-you (n)(a): he said thank-you; thank-you note

     

    that/which: that introduces a restrictive clause (one that is crucial to identifying what’s being modified); which introduces a nonrestrictive clause (one that’s not crucial to the understanding of the noun being modified). [See COMMAS.]

     

    then-: hyphenate (a) combos (then-accepted Scottish fashion)

     

    the: Generally, lowercase before band names unless doing so may result in confusion or a misread; uppercase if first word of a title.

     

    theremin: lowercase, unless talking about its creator, Leon Theremin (New York Times)

     

    -think: hyphenate combos (company-think)

     

    THOUGHTS/INTERNAL SPEECH Choose italics or quotes based on context; be consistent within article.

    ·       According to Chicago Manual of Style, thought, imagined dialogue and other interior discourse is often but not always enclosed in quotation marks. I should have said, “Not with me, you won’t!” I bet she’s saying to him right now, “Morgenstern thinks he’s too good for us.” Barnacle heard a loud crash and told himself, “Viola’s drunk again!” “I should have said, ‘What business of it is yours!’ ” thought Tom.

    ·       No quotes if internal speech is paraphrase of idea:

    ·       and then claim it was the kid’s idea

    ·       did not say don’t do it

    ·       he said no / she gave us a yes

    ·       I always express to anyone operating it, this machine is a loaded gun

    ·       BUT, author may choose to simply cap first letter (She told herself, I could die!) or put in italics (Edgar looked at her and thought, Now what have I done?)

     

    thrift-store

     

    thrill-drunk (pa)

     

    throw-down (a): a throw-down record

     

    -tiered: hyphenate combos (double-tiered system)

     

    -timers: hyphenate (n) combos: first-timers

     

    time-traveled (v)

     

    Tin Pan Alley

     

    TITLES Generally, cap only if preceding the name (President Clinton, BUT the president of the United States is Clinton; Senior Marketing Chief Joe Blow, BUT Joe Blow, the senior marketing chief).

     

    “to do” (a): “to do” list

     

    tom-tom(s)

     

    tone-deaf (a)(pa)

     

    -top: close combos (clifftop, mountaintop)

     

    top ten (n); BUT, top-ten (a); if referring to a specific list, can use Top 10

     

    TOUR DATES

    ·       Use this format: XX.XX City, State: Venue. So, 01.12 New York, NY: Knitting Factory

    ·       If the band is playing with another band worth mentioning, use an asterisk after the venue, and define the asterisk (*) at the bottom of the list. If two bands need to be mentioned, use two asterisks (**). Other symbols are fine, but choose ones that aren’t confusing (don’t use an !, for example). 

    ·       For states, use two-letter postal abbreviation: AL, NJ, NY, etc.

     

    tourmates [See also bandmates, labelmates.]

     

    tragicomic (a)

     

    trash-talk (v)(n)(a)

     

    tree huggers (n)

     

    trip-hop (a)(n)(pa)

     

    T-shirt

     

    tricked-out (a)(pa)

     

    trippy (a)

     

    tsk-tsk

     

    T.T. the Bear’s: venue in Cambridge, Massachusetts; T.T.’s on second reference only

     

    Tupac Shakur

     

    turntablist

     

    TV or television

     

    twentysomethings

     

    two-step

     

    Type A (a)(pa): Type A behavior 

     

     

    U

    uber-: hyphenate combos (über-agency)

     

    U.K. (a)(n): try to spell out United Kingdom in text as a noun

     

    ultra-high-performance (a)

     

    ultrarich [per Chicago]

     

    uncredited

     

    under way (pa): an elaborate set of negotiations under way

     

    unique: The word means “one of a kind,” so something’s either unique or it’s not. It cannot be “the most unique” or “entirely unique” or “more unique” than something else. That’s why it’s a good idea to think twice before using the word (is this band’s sound truly one of a kind?).

     

    unitard(s) (n)

     

    United States: try to spell out in text as a noun; more acceptable to use U.S. as an adjective

     

    unlistenable (a)(pa)

     

    upmarket (a)

     

    up-tempo (a) [See also down-tempo.]

     

    upward: can run upward of

     

    U.S. (n)(a): try to spell out United States in text as a noun

     

    UV (a): UV rays

     

     

    V

    versus: spell out unless display copy or a court case

     

    vocoder: not a trademark

     

    videotaper (n)

     

     

    W

    wannabe (n)

     

    warbly (a)

     

    Warner Brothers

     

    Washington, D.C.

     

    Web site (n)(a); the Web

     

    weeklong

     

    well: usually don’t hyphenate (pa) combos (the band is well rounded); usually don’t hyphenate (n) combos, but some exceptions (the well-heeled); hyphenate (a) combos (a well-known person).

    ·       RULE: Hyphenate if you can’t remove “well” (you can’t say the heeled club).

     

    well-off (n)(a)(pa): the well-off; a well-off man; is well-off

     

    west: capitalize for regions (the Western world, the West); lowercase for directions (I live west of Denver); Wild West; West Coast, Middle West, Midwest, Pacific Northwest (U.S.); westernize

     

    western Canada

     

    which/that: which introduces a nonrestrictive clause (one that’s not crucial to the understanding of the noun being modified); that introduces a restrictive clause (one that is crucial to identifying what’s being modified). [See COMMAS.]

     

    while: avoid as a synonym for “although” (usually to start a clause) unless you want to imply some sort of simultaneity

     

    white label(s) (n); white-label (a)

     

    whiskey/whisky: whisky for references to the spirit coming from Scotland and Canada, whiskey for everything else

     

    whistlegate: refers to Peter, Bjorn and John’s live performance. Use sparingly, as with all “-gate” constructions.

     

    whole wide world

     

    whollop (v)

     

    whoopee cushion (n)

     

    Will.i.am

     

    windshield (n)(a)

     

    wing tip (n); BUT, wingtip (a)

     

    -wise: hyphenate combos not in dictionary (confidence-wise, determination-wise)

     

    word-association (n)

     

    workout (n)(a): the workout; BUT, work out (v): going to work out at the gym

     

    World Cup: okay to capitalize plural (several World Cups)

     

    World War II: or Second World War (author’s preference)

     

     

    X

    Xerox: a trademark; use photocopy instead

     

     

    Y

    years: use numerals, even for decades (’60s, ’70s, ’80s)

     

    year-round (a); BUT, all year round (adv)

     

    yes men; yes man

     

    young’uns (n)

     

     

    Z

    zeitgeist (n)

     

    Zen (n)(a)

     

    zeros (n); zeroes (v)